Glossary – Accounting

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There are 10 names in this directory beginning with the letter B.
Balance sheet
One of the main financial statements. The balance sheet reports the assets, liabilities, and owner’s (stockholders’) equity at a specific point in time, such as December 31. The balance sheet is also referred to as the Statement of Financial Position.

Bank overdraft
A negative balance in the bank’s records for the company’s checking account.

Bank reconciliation
The process of comparing the amounts in the Cash account in the general ledger to the amounts appearing on the bank statement. The objective is to be certain that there is consistency between the amounts and that the company’s amounts are accurate and complete.

Bill of materials
A listing of the materials included in a product. A bill of material could be thought of as a bakery’s recipe for producing one of its products.

Bonds payable
Generally a long term liability account containing the face amount, par amount, or maturity amount of the bonds issued by a company that are outstanding as of the balance sheet date.

Bonds premium
A liability account with a credit balance associated with bonds payable that were issued at more than the face value or maturity value of the bonds. The premium on bonds payable is amortized to interest expense over the life of the bonds and results in a reduction of interest expense.

Book depreciation
The depreciation computed for financial reporting purposes—as opposed to income tax depreciation.

Book value
The book value of an asset is the amount of cost in its asset account less the accumulated depreciation applicable to the asset. The book value of a company is the amount of owner’s or stockholders’ equity. The book value of bonds payable is the combination of the accounts Bonds Payable and Discount on Bonds Payable or the combination of Bonds Payable and Premium on Bonds Payable.

The recording of a company’s transactions into the accounts contained in the general ledger. It is usually associated with the accounting tasks prior to the preparation of the trial balance.

A detailed plan with dollar amounts. Examples of budgets used in business include the cash budget, sales budget, production budget, department budgets, the master budget, and the capital expenditures budget. Some budgets are designed to be flexible budgets, while others are static budgets.