Confirmation of an action which was not pre-approved and may not have been authorized, usually by a principal (employer) who adopts the acts of his/her agent (employee).
To confirm and adopt the act of another even though it was not approved beforehand.
In law, just, rational, appropriate, ordinary or usual in the circumstances.
A repeat criminal offender, convicted of a crime after having been previously convicted.
Mutual exchange of privileges between states, nations, businesses or individuals.
The act of a judge or prosecutor being removed or voluntarily stepping aside from a legal case due to conflict of interest or other good reason.
To buy back, as when an owner who had mortgaged his/her real property pays off the debt.
The process by which the repeal or approval of an existing statute or state constitutional provision is voted upon.
Refresh one\’s memory
To use a document, exhibit or previous testimony in order to help a witness recall an event or prior statement when the witness has responded to a question that he/she could not remember.
The means to achieve justice in any matter in which legal rights are involved.
1) A judge’s order reducing a judgment awarded by a jury when the award exceeds the amount asked for by the plaintiff (person who brought the suit). 2) An appeal’s transmittal of a case back to the trial court so that the case can be retried, or an order entered consistent with the appeals court’s decision.
To annul an existing law, by passage of a repealing statute, or by public vote on a referendum.
Under common law, the right to bring a lawsuit for recovery of goods improperly taken by another.
A temporary delay in imposition of the death penalty.
To ask or demand a judge to act (such as issuing a writ) or demanding something from the other party (such as production of documents), usually by a party to a lawsuit (usually the attorney).
A thing (legal matter) already determined by a court, from latin for “the thing has been judged.” more properly res judicata.
It means all circumstances surrounding and connected with a happening. From latin for “things done”.
The rule of law that if a rescuer of a person hurt or put in peril due to the negligence or intentional wrongdoing of another is injured in the process of the rescue, the original wrongdoer is responsible in damages for the rescuer’s injury.
The crime of using physical force (no matter how slight in the eyes of most law enforcement officers) to prevent arrest, handcuffing and/or taking the accused to jail.
A temporary order of a court to keep conditions as they are until there can be a hearing in which both parties are present. More properly it is called a temporary restraining order (shortened to tro).
Any limitation on activity, by statute, regulation or contract provision.
Common lawyer lingo for outcome of a lawsuit.
To withdraw any legal document in a lawsuit or other legal proceeding, or withdraw a promise or offer of contract.
The decision of a court of appeal ruling that the judgment of a lower court was incorrect and is therefore reversed.
The judicial consideration of a lower court judgment by an appellate court, determining if there were legal errors sufficient to require reversal.
To annul or cancel an act, particularly a statement, document or promise, as if it no longer existed.
The direct taking of property (including money) from a person (victim) through force, threat or intimidation.
1) To decide a legal question by a court, 2) To make a judicial command, 3) Any regulation governing conduct.
Court decision on a case or any legal question.