Glossary Law

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There are 18 names in this directory beginning with the letter I.
In violation of statute, regulation or ordinance, which may be criminal or merely not in conformity.

Exemption from penalties, payments or legal requirements, granted by authorities or statutes.

To select and install a jury.

To discredit the testimony of a witness by proving that he/she has not told the truth or has been inconsistent, by introducing contrary evidence, including statements made outside of the courtroom in depositions or in statements of the witness heard by another.

Implied warranty
An assumption at law that products are “merchantable,” meaning they work and are useable as normally expected by consumers, unless there is a warning that they are sold “as is” or second-hand without any warranty.

In chambers
Referring to discussions or hearings held in the judge’s office, called his chambers. It is also called “in camera.”

In pro per
Short for in propria persona.

In rem
From latin “against or about a thing,” referring to a lawsuit or other legal action directed toward property, rather than toward a particular person.

In toto
Latin for “completely” or “in total,” referring to the entire thing, as in “the goods were destroyed in toto,” or “the case was dismissed in toto.”

A rule of logic applied to evidence in a trial, in which a fact is “proved” by presenting other “facts” which lead to only one reasonable conclusion-that if a and b are true, then c is.

Latin for “below,” this is legal shorthand to indicate that the details or citation of a case will come later on in the brief.

An investigation and/or a hearing held by the coroner (a county official) when there is a violent death either by accident or homicide, the cause of death is not immediately clear, there are mysterious circumstances surrounding the death, or the deceased was a prisoner.

Inter alia
Latin for “among other things.” this phrase is often found in legal pleadings and writings to specify one example out of many possibilities.

International law
Treaties between countries; multi-lateral agreements; some commissions covering particular subjects, such as whaling or copyrights.

The procedure when two parties are involved in a lawsuit over the right to collect a debt from a third party, who admits the money is owed but does not know which person to pay.

Questioning of a suspect or witness by law enforcement authorities. Once a person being questioned is arrested (is a “prime” suspect), he/she is entitled to be informed of his/her legal rights, and in no case may the interrogation violate rules of due process.

Intrinsic fraud
An intentionally false representation (lie) which is part of the fraud and can be considered in determining general and punitive damages.

Irreparable damage or injury
The type of harm which no monetary compensation can cure or put conditions back the way they were, such as cutting down shade trees, polluting a stream, not giving a child needed medication, not supporting an excavation which may cause collapse of a building, tearing down a structure, or a host of other actions or omissions.
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